в "морских флагах" понаверчены.
Во-первых, англоязычные источники линки на эти флаги не дают.
The Holy See, as governing body of the Church = "
Ну вот, лажанулся я с Sea и See- с кем не бывает! :)
From the late Middle Ages onward, popes have granted titles of nobility. The titles, which became especially common at the end of the 16th c., became known in the early 19th c. as Roman nobility although they have less to do with Rome than with the Pope.
The titles included prince, duke, count, among others. One particular title was that of count palatine. It apparently emerged during the Avignon period, and was defined by the Trento Council as "knight of the Sacred Palace and of the Court of Laterano and palatine count". The title was associated with the Order of the Golden Spur.
During the French occupation in the Napoleonic period, Roman titles were abolished, and they were re-established on July 6, 1816. The Order of the Golden Spur, which had lost a good deal of its value by being awarded too easily, was abolished on Oct. 31, 1841 (replace with the Order of Saint-Sylvester). The title that used to accompany it was shortened to "Roman count palatine", and further simplified to "count" in 1847. The pope continued to grant titles even after 1870 and the loss of the Papal States. By the Lateran Accord of 1929, the Italian government recognized and confirmed the pope's power to grant titles, and the titles were considered equivalent to Italian titles. With the abolition of nobility in the Italian Republic in 1948, the Roman nobility was once again considered as foreign. Pius XII granted a few more titles, John XXIII confirmed some but none have been granted under Paul VI and John-Paul I.
The titles could be for life or hereditary. Typically, it was fairly easy for the holder of a life title to petition for conversion into a hereditary title. The titles were usually, but not always transmissible by male primogeniture only; there were usually, but not always granted to men.
Are these titles granted by the pope as temporal sovereign or as head of the Church? I personally incline toward the latter. The facts are that the pope granted these titles mainly to foreigners, not to his subjects in the Papal States; moreover, he continued to grant such titles even between 1870 and 1929, when he had no subjects and no sovereignty. The acts by which these titles are created are registered with the Actae Apolosticae Sedis, indicating that they are acts of the Holy See, that is, the governing body of the Catholic Church, not the government of Vatican City. Finally, the text of such acts makes clear that it is the grantor is the pope as spiritual figure; and the conditions imposed for transmission of nobility, in the case of hereditary titles, include a clause that the descendants must be Roman Catholic and must "persevere in their obedience to the apostolic Holy See." Such conditions have nothing to do with the pope's temporal sovereignty, and everything with his position as head of the Church.